Hatha yoga, likewise called hatha vidyā, is a sort of yoga concentrating on physical and mental quality structure activities and stances depicted principally in three writings of Hinduism:
Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Svātmārāma (fifteenth century)
Shiva Samhita, creator obscure (1500 or late seventeenth century)
Gheranda Samhita by Gheranda (late seventeenth century)
Numerous researchers would incorporate the Goraksha Samhita by Gorakshanath of the eleventh century in this rundown. Gorakshanath is generally considered to have been in charge of advancing hatha yoga as we probably am aware it today. Other hatha yoga writings incorporate the Haṭhābhyāsapaddhati, the Hatha Ratnavali, the Joga Pradīpikā, and the Sritattvanidhi.
Vajrayana Buddhism, established by the Indian Mahasiddhas, has a progression of asanas and pranayamas, for example, tummo (Sanskrit caṇḍālī) and trul khor which parallel hatha yoga.
Generally around the eleventh century, certain procedures which are related with haṭha yoga start to be sketched out in a progression of early messages. The points of these practices were siddhis (supranormal powers, for example, levitation) and mukti (freedom). James Mallinson gives a rundown of what he terms “early” haṭha yoga works, which he diverges from later “traditional” works, for example, the Haṭhapradīpikā:
The Amṛtasiddhi, likely a Tantric Buddhist content, which dates to the eleventh century CE, educates mahābandha, mahāmudrā, and mahāvedha which include materially stances and breath control, as a way to safeguard amrta or bindu (imperative vitality) in the head (the “moon”) from trickling down the focal channel and being copied by the flame (the “sun”) at the perineum.The message likewise assaults Vajrayana Deity yoga as incapable.
The Dattātreyayogaśāstra, a Vaisnava message likely formed in the thirteenth century CE, shows an eightfold yoga indistinguishable with Patañjali’s 8 appendages that it ascribes to Yajnavalkya and others just as eight mudras that it says were attempted by the rishi Kapila and different ṛishis. The Dattātreyayogaśāstra educates mahāmudrā, mahābandha, khecarīmudrā, jālandharabandha, uḍḍiyāṇabandha, mūlabandha, viparītakaraṇī, vajrolī, amarolī, and sahajolī.
The Vivekamārtaṇḍa, which is contemporaneous with the Dattātreyayogaśāstra, educates nabhomudrā (for example khecarīmudrā), mahāmudrā, viparītakaraṇī and the three bandhas. It additionally shows six chakras and the raising of Kundalinī by methods for “flame yoga” (vahniyogena).
The Goraksaśatakạ, a Nāth content, which is additionally contemporaneous with the Dattātreyayogaśāstra, instructs śakticālanīmudrā (“invigorating Sarasvatī”) alongside the three bandhas.
“Invigorating Sarasvatī” is finished by enclosing the tongue by a material and pulling on it, animating the goddess Kundalinī who is said to stay at the opposite end of the focal channel. This content does not make reference to the conservation of bindu, however just says that freedom is accomplished by controlling the brain through controlling the breath.
The ̣śārṅgadharapaddhati is a compilation of sections on a wide scope of subjects aggregated in 1363 CE, which in its depiction of Hatha Yoga incorporates ̣the Dattātreyayogaśāstra’s lessons on five mudrās.
The Khecarīvidyā shows just the technique for khecarīmudrā, which is intended to give one access to stores of amrta in the body and to raise Kundalinī by means of the six chakras.
The Yogabīja shows the three bandhas and śakticālanīmudrā (“animating Sarasvatī”) to stir Kundalinī.
The Amaraughaprabodha portrays three bandhas as in the Amṛtasiddhi, yet in addition includes the raising of Kundalinī.
The Śivasamhitā is a content of Śaiva non-dualism and Śrīvidyā Śāktism. It shows every one of the ten mudrās educated in before functions just as different Śākta rehearses, for example, rehashing the Śrīvidyā mantrarāja. It additionally educates the yonimudrā, an explicitly Śākta yoga stance, and its objective is the enlivening of Kundalinī so it penetrates different lotuses and bunches as it rises upwards through the focal channel.
The soonest haṭha yoga techniques for the Amṛtasiddhi, Dattātreyayogaśāstra and Vivekamārtaṇḍa are utilized to raise and monitor bindu (semen, and in ladies rajas – menstrual liquid) which was viewed as the physical substance of life that was continually trickling down from the head and being lost. This imperative embodiment is additionally here and there called amrta (the nectar of immortality).These procedures tried to either physically switch this procedure (by transformed stances like the viparītakaraṇī) or to utilize the breath to compel bindu upwards through the focal channel.